Origins of Western Thought

Aristotle, one the greatest minds that ever existed, is indeed the godfather of evidence-based medicine. His teachings of logic and philosophy have been a driving force continuously guiding medicine away from superstition and towards the scientific method. Today, the revival of evidence-based medicine is only a reaffirmation of his early teachings dating from the fourth century BC. In ancient Egypt, Imhotep was the god of medicine Fig. Imhotep was the architect who built the oldest still standing stone monument on earth: the stepped pyramid of King Djoser at Saqqara. Since the early work of Imhotep, ancient Egyptian medicine evolved along the years. Various treatments and therapeutic procedures were developed and recorded in the ancient Egyptian textbooks, written in the form of papyri and many of these medical papyri have survived. The famous ones are the Edwin Smith papyrus, the Ebers papyrus, the Kahun gynaecological papyrus and the London and Leiden papyrus. But medicine in ancient Egypt was tainted with religion Risse,

Aristotle’s Biology

Aristotle , Greek Aristoteles , born bce , Stagira, Chalcidice , Greece—died , Chalcis , Euboea , ancient Greek philosopher and scientist, one of the greatest intellectual figures of Western history. He was the author of a philosophical and scientific system that became the framework and vehicle for both Christian Scholasticism and medieval Islamic philosophy. Even after the intellectual revolutions of the Renaissance , the Reformation , and the Enlightenment , Aristotelian concepts remained embedded in Western thinking.

Aristotle was one of the greatest philosophers who ever lived and the first genuine scientist in history. He made pioneering contributions to all fields of philosophy and science, he invented the field of formal logic , and he identified the various scientific disciplines and explored their relationships to each other.

crates, Speusippus, and Aristotle contributed works On Pleasure to it; Plato situation, which may be dated during the Asiatic expedition.J. Between the time of​.

Jaeger maintains that the On Philosophy M. Untersteiner, Aristotele: Della Filosofia Rome: , pp. See also Untersteiner, “Aristotele Phys. In these earlier works, Untersteiner maintains that the On Philosophy manifests not only a marked independence of Plat , but also a remarkable agreement with the basic content of book N of the Metaphysics.

See Diogenes Laertius V. Ptolemy combined and probably confused the Aristotelian On Philosophy and the Aristotelian Protrepticus when he lists a “book in which he [scil. Metaphysica, in Comment. Kroll, , , 1. Heiberg, , , 1. Hayduck, , 75, 1. Hayduck, , , I.

Aristotle (384-322 BCE)

Aristotle was born in Northern Greece in B. Plato was his teacher, but their views were not always identical. Collinson, D. Fifty major philosophers. Origins of Western Thought. The influence of Aristotle, the prince of philosophers, on the intellectual history of the West is second to none.

He was the student of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle, and he wrote in the Plato’s middle to later works, including his most famous work, the Republic, are Historical Socrates; Dating Plato’s Dialogues; Transmission of Plato’s Works.

Any history of biology must start with Aristotle’s zoology, one of the earliest studies of the natural world and a true defining moment in scientific history. Whilst other Ancient Greeks, such as Anaximander and Theophrastes, contributed to the history of biology, Aristotle’s zoology earns this brilliant mind the title of ‘The Father of Biology. Aristotle’s methods and theories seem a little primitive to modern humanity, with its genome codes, microbiology and medicine, but his work was a quantum leap in the building of human knowledge.

Aristotle’s zoology is something that every modern biologist should study, as a perfect example of how to build up a store of knowledge based upon careful observation. Although Aristotle’s zoology cemented his place as the father of biology, as the first person to apply empirical techniques and a rudimentary scientific method to his research, the earlier Greek philosophers, Anaximander and Theophrastus, deserve mentioning. Aristotle’s zoology was largely built upon their work and observations , so they earned a place in the annals of the long history of biology.

As with much of the work of the Greek philosophers, much of the work of Anaximander and Theophrastus is lost in the mists of time and their thoughts must be gleaned from secondary sources, revealing a tantalizing glimpse of their talent. Anaximander the Milesian c. Whilst his theories seem very strange when compared to the later work of Charles Darwin , he was the first philosopher to postulate relationships between the various animals and humanity. Many of his exact points concerning the evolution of species and the origins of humanity sound almost comical, but the basic principle and philosophy behind his idea was extremely insightful.

There is much disagreement between historians over the various fragmentary sources and translations, but his thought certainly follows a chain of reasoning. Greek Philosophers did not like ‘uncaused causes,’ so Anaximander attempted to explain the origin of humanity by pointing out that the first humans must have come from somewhere, the first real inclusion of humans in the history of biology.

One other addition, found in a Latin text, was that fish emerged from the water and their skins burst, revealing humans who had grown to puberty inside the fish.

Aristotle’s Zoology

Throughout history, books have been a highly prized commodity. Their trade goes back many centuries to the invention of materials such as papyrus and parchment, and the creation of libraries by accumulating and copying books gave rise to collections as famous as that of Alexandria. Unfortunately, many libraries were lost due to various circumstances.

It has been estimated that less than ten percent of all classical literature has survived into the modern era.

It has significantly increased the number of papyri of Aristotle’s works so in The Oxyrhynchus Papyri series is more ancient, likely dating to the.

The paper argues that the informations in this passage must stem from a rather well informed Greek source, which presented an alternative and more complete account than the informations we have from Plutarch. After that date, he accompanied Augustus to Rome where he may have completed his edition. Ammonius, In De interpretatione commentarius. Busse Commentaria in Aristotelem Graeca 4, 5. Berlin Oxford [without page numbers]. Anonymus, Oracula Sibyllina.

Plato (427—347 B.C.E.)

Skip navigation. Aristotle studied developing organisms, among other things, in ancient Greece, and his writings shaped Western philosophy and natural science for greater than two thousand years. He spent much of his life in Greece and studied with Plato at Plato’s Academy in Athens, where he later established his own school called the Lyceum.

His writings cover many subjects – including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theater, music, rhetoric, linguistics, politics.

Theory and History of Ontology by Raul Corazzon e-mail: rc ontology. Ontology – Mirror Website. A Bibliography. Barnes, Jonathan. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Reprinted in: Gregory Nagy ed.


Recent times have seen a plague of Aristotle bashing basically accusing him of having held up the progress of science. Recently I stumble across a particular concise and trenchant version and I thought it might be instructive, as a historian of science, to analyse its core claim. Aristotle was so smart it took world civilization years to recover from his disastrous physics ideas. First we need to get his time frame turned into concrete dates.

More recently David Wootton was touting the nova of as kick off point. Let us agree on a compromise date of CE so we have a claim that Aristotle singlehandedly prevented the invention or discovery take you pick according to your personal philosophy of science of physics from BCE until CE.

Quick Facts. Name: Aristotle. Birth Date: c. BCE. Death Date: c. BCE. Education: Lyceum, Plato’s Academy. Place of Birth: Stagira.

The Greek philosopher Aristotle B. Aristotle was born in B. Both of his parents were members of traditional medical families, and his father, Nicomachus, served as court physician to King Amyntus III of Macedonia. At age 17 he was sent to Athens to enroll in Plato’s Academy. When Plato died in , control of the Academy passed to his nephew Speusippus. He spent five years on the coast of Asia Minor as a guest of former students at Assos and Lesbos.

It was here that he undertook his pioneering research into marine biology and married his wife Pythias, with whom he had his only daughter, also named Pythias. Aristotle returned to Athens in B. It was at the Lyceum that Aristotle probably composed most of his approximately works, of which only 31 survive. In style, his known works are dense and almost jumbled, suggesting that they were lecture notes for internal use at his school.

The surviving works of Aristotle are grouped into four categories. For example, all men are mortal, all Greeks are men, therefore all Greeks are mortal. He also broke rhetoric into types of speeches: epideictic ceremonial , forensic judicial and deliberative where the audience is required to reach a verdict. Aristotle takes a different approach, analyzing the purpose of poetry.

Aristotle, godfather of evidence-based medicine

Download audio file mp3. In terms of the history of western esotericism, it makes sense to talk about at least four different Aristotles, although only one of these four ever really lived. The real, historical Aristotle studied with Plato for many years, but had an unbelievably fertile, independent philosophic mind of his own, and wrote revolutionary works on a huge range of subjects. His works continue to inform and challenge western culture to this day.

But the real heroes of western esotericism are the other three Aristotles: Aristotle the esoteric philosopher, as interpreted by late antique Platonism, Aristotle the author of the Arabic works The Theology of Aristotle and the Book on Causes, and Aristotle the medieval authority on occult sciences. In this double episode we explore the convoluted history of the esoteric Aristotle, a man who never lived but who forever changed the secret history of western esotericism.

Let’s examine one of the most important works of classical antiquity: Organon, ”​current,” which can mean ”up to date” or ”flow of water”); Synonyms: different.

Aristotle, however, is not responsible for assembling the books of the Metaphysics into a single work. The collection is most likely to have been put together by Andronicus or someone else on the basis of the thematic similarities among the individual treatises. Many of the issues Aristotle deals with—such as existence, essence, individuation, identity, Universals , the nature of material objects, just to mention a few—are certainly issues that we would comfortably describe as metaphysical.

Over the last sixty years or so, the Metaphysics has been rediscovered by metaphysicians in the analytic philosophy tradition as a source of philosophical insights. Halper is a more concise and student-oriented guide, which takes the reader through the text and introduces the philosophical issues it raises. Cohen discusses some major metaphysical issues, with particular reference to substance theory, and offers an extensive and up-to-date bibliography.

Barnes, J. In The Cambridge companion to Aristotle.

PHILOSOPHY – Aristotle